By Ryszard Kubiak; Roman Rudzinski; Stefan Sokolowski

ISBN-10: 0124276202

ISBN-13: 9780124276208

A function of recent complicated computing is the useful method of programming. during this ebook, the authors current an advent to the maths which underline practical programming, emphasizing the knowledge of definition and specification--a prerequisite of excellent programming and challenge fixing with a working laptop or computer. The booklet is self-contained, requiring a low point of mathematical sophistication and will be used as an advent to the math of programming.

Provides an creation to the useful method of programming**Emphasizes the matter to be solved, no longer the programming language**Takes the view that each one laptop courses are a definition of a function**Includes workouts for every chapter**Can be used as a pre-programming language creation to the maths of computing.

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**Extra info for An introduction to programming with specifications : a mathematical approach**

**Sample text**

11) with + as the two-argument function) = I F x > 2 A x > - l THEN (2x - 4) + 1 ELSE IF χ > 2 THEN {2x — 4) + (IF χ = - 1 THEN 0 ELSE - 1 ) ELSE IF χ > - 1 THEN {-2x + 4) + 1 ELSE {-2x + 4) + (IF χ = - 1 THEN 0 ELSE - 1 ) 36 3. 10) can be applied to the IF in the last line with (—2x + 4) + . . as the one-argument function) = IF χ > 2 THEN 2x - 3 ELSE IF χ > 2 THEN (2a? 9) can serve to introduce negations) = IF χ > 2 THEN 2x - 3 ELSE IF χ > 2 Λ-. 4. 37 Exercises Case analysis is crucial for computer science, where most functions are denned by cases.

7). 3. 3 Application to drawing graphs 35 Application to drawing graphs The main application of the laws of conditional expressions is to simplify complicated expressions that may arise when function definitions are ma nipulated. 11) with + as the two-argument function) = I F x > 2 A x > - l THEN (2x - 4) + 1 ELSE IF χ > 2 THEN {2x — 4) + (IF χ = - 1 THEN 0 ELSE - 1 ) ELSE IF χ > - 1 THEN {-2x + 4) + 1 ELSE {-2x + 4) + (IF χ = - 1 THEN 0 ELSE - 1 ) 36 3. 10) can be applied to the IF in the last line with (—2x + 4) + .

As the one-argument function) = IF χ > 2 THEN 2x - 3 ELSE IF χ > 2 THEN (2a? 9) can serve to introduce negations) = IF χ > 2 THEN 2x - 3 ELSE IF χ > 2 Λ-. 4. 37 Exercises Case analysis is crucial for computer science, where most functions are denned by cases. Hence the importance of the conditional expressions and of the rules to manipulate them. 4 Exercises 1. Evaluate the following expressions: a. IF a > b THEN a ELSE b for a = 7, b = - 2 b. IF (IF χ > y THEN χ + y > 0 ELSE χ + y < 0) THEN χ + y ELSE χ -y for χ = — 1, y = 3 c.

### An introduction to programming with specifications : a mathematical approach by Ryszard Kubiak; Roman Rudzinski; Stefan Sokolowski

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