By Helmut K. Anheier, David C. Hammack
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Additional info for American Foundations: Roles and Contributions
New issues demanded attention: the reconstruction of Western Europe, the cold war, and the collapse of the European colonial empires; the African American civil rights movement; the persistence of poverty; the new women’s movement. Large new nonsectarian foundations had been a dramatic new presence on the American scene in the first two decades of the twentieth century, but fewer new foundations appeared in the 1930s and 1940s, and when their numbers rose again in the 1950s and 1960s, congressional hearings and new legislation sharply slowed the creation of new foundations.
Anderson (1988); Bond (1934); Bullock (1967); Curry (1969). These societies were not foundations as foundations are typically defined. They were nongovernmental and nonprofit, but they did not meet other conditions commonly established for counting as a foundation, that is, “having a [significant] principal fund of its own, managed by its own trustees or directors” (Andrews 1961, p. 157). Furthermore, their focus was the provision of short-term relief for acute social problems rather than remediation of the root causes of social problems.
First, whereas Peabody’s partial succor method had required contributions from state and local treasuries, Rosenwald’s school construction program required contributions from local black communities as well as from public sources. 43 Rosenwald schools had to follow simple, efficient plans carefully worked out by representatives of the Fund in co-operation with school authorities. They were to provide not only formal and theoretical “book larnin’” but also practical work and to have 38. Embree and Waxman (1949, p.
American Foundations: Roles and Contributions by Helmut K. Anheier, David C. Hammack