By Stewart W. Clarke
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Additional resources for Aerosols and the Lung. Clinical and Experimental Aspects
1981). T h e r e is no direct evidence that ciliary activity is affected in vivo in chronic bronchitis, asthma, cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis. In all these diseases mucociliary transport has been found to be impaired in vivo but whether it is due to abnormalities of mucus or cilia or both is not clear. In vitro studies of ciliary activity in nasal epithelium from patients with chronic bronchitis, cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis suggest that ciliary activity is within normal limits (Rutland and Cole, 1981).
Gross (1953) proposed the existence of a viscosity gradient within the alveolar fluid layer owing to evaporation of water from the fluid film, respiratory movements helping particles to drift along the broncho-alveolar junction. Kilburn (1968) favoured the hypothesis that particles and macrophages were removed from the alveoli by the influence of surface forces. For Hilding (1965) it was the cohesion forces of the bronchiolar 'mucus' together with the propulsive power of cilia. M o r e recently Sorokin and Brain (1975) proposed that there is a flow of fluid from the alveoli to the bronchioles, which is fed by transudation from the pulmonary blood flow capillaries as well as by cell secretions and is helped by respiratory movements of the lungs.
The serous cell is characterized by a high degree of sulphation. In addition to the acid glycoprotein a serous cell granule may contain the protein lysozyme. Normal h u m a n airways show a marked range in the proportion of various types of intracellular glycoproteins but in any single individual the distribution throughout the airways is similar and there is less variation between the glands in o n e individual than between individuals. Tracheobronchial secretion in situ Half a century ago Lucas and Douglas (1934) put forward the hypothesis that for the satisfactory functioning of the mucociliary system, the tracheobronchial secretions in situ were composed of two layers of different physical properties.
Aerosols and the Lung. Clinical and Experimental Aspects by Stewart W. Clarke