By Peter W. Hawkes

ISBN-10: 0123739071

ISBN-13: 9780123739070

Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics merges long-running serials-Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics and Advances in Optical and Electron Microscopy. The sequence beneficial properties prolonged articles at the physics of electron units (especially semiconductor devices), particle optics at low and high energies, microlithography, snapshot technology and electronic photograph processing, electromagnetic wave propagation, electron microscopy, and the computing equipment utilized in these kind of domain names.

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**Extra resources for Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics, Vol. 145**

**Sample text**

The Frobenius norm of the difference (Pi+2|i+1 − Pi+1|i ) is used as the convergence criterion for the predictor covariance matrix. 3. RTS Smoothing. The state model Eq. (52) and the observation model Eq. , 1995). The forward sweep recursively computes the predictor estimate (Ψi+1|i ) and the filter estimate (Ψi+1|i+1 ) using the KBF: (a) Predictor update. Ψi+1|i = Γ Ψi|i with Ψ1|0 = 0. (57) (b) Filter update. Ψi+1|i+1 = Ψi+1|i + K(Zi+1 − GΨi+1|i ), (58) for 1 i (NI − 1). It may be noted that the Kalman gain K and the filter covariance matrix Pi+1|i+1 can be expressed in terms of the steady-state value of the predictor covariance matrix using Eqs.

The computational saving at the decoder is of O(NI2 ), as we show next. Both block and sub-block SNP/VQR require inverting the state matrices to generate the reconstructed frame x(i, j, k) from the error field v(i, j, k). To reconstruct one frame of the video sequence, the number of computations required in the block SNP/VQR is of O(NI3 NJ3 ). In the subblock SNP/VQR, the number of flops required to generate one frame is of O(NI NJ3 ), implying a saving of O(NI2 ). (k) (k) 5. Since computations of the 3D forward regressor blocks Lℓ1 ℓ2 and Fℓ1 ℓ2 are dependent on the values of the field interactions {βh , βv , βt }, therefore the sub-blocks cannot be computed offline.

263 for bit rates below 200 Kbps and MPEG4 for bit rates below 175 Kbps. 25 dB. 75 dB over MPEG4. Table 2 provides additional PSNR comparisons between the block SNP/VQR and MPEG4 for the “foreman,” “highway,” and “news” sequences. Our earlier observations are validated with the results listed in Table 2. A higher PSNR does not necessarily imply a superior quality reconstructed video, because the perceived video quality is highly dependent on the human visual system (HVS). 263, MPEG4, and SNP/VQR.

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